MODULE “A” COMMON OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS  PART 3

  • DRAWINGS
  • HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
  • HOISTING EQUIPMENT
  • POWER ACTUATED TOOLS
  • RADIATION INSTRUMENT
  • ELECTRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT

 

PLANS, SCHEMATICS, DRAWINGS AND SPECS

Review to the diagram below on general drawing convention.

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TYPES OF DRAWINGS

Isometric drawing (shown above):  Is a 2 dimensional representation of a 3 dimensional part

Orthographic drawing (shown above):  Is a way to represent a 3 dimensional object in 2 dimensions.

Structural drawing: Is a type of engineering drawing that is a plan or a set of plans that shows how a building or structure will be built.  An example of a structural drawing is a drawing setting out dimensions for concrete structures for a building.

Architectural drawing:  Technical drawings of structures.  For example a floor plan is a architectural drawing, the way a building looks from the outside is also an architectural drawings.  Note: these show appearance and technical details but do not show how to build a structure.

Mechanical drawing: Scale drawing of a mechanical structure done with precision instruments.

 

ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS

Block diagram:  Represents system and equipment in block form, lines between blocks represent connections.  (basic diagram)

One line diagram:  Uses standard symbols (TX,CB etc)  connected by a single line to indicate the operation of an electrical system.  A one line diagram provides basic understanding of an electrical system or part of an electrical system.  (basic overview of a system)

Schematic/Elementary drawing:  Used to provide detail on control device wiring and sequence of operations of circuits.

Connection Wiring diagram: A connection wiring diagram is used to show how each conductor is connected to a device or in a circuit and how they all are interconnected.  (detailed diagram)    

 

DRAWING SCALE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS

The first number of the scale refers to the length of the drawing on paper and the second number refers to the length of the real part.  For example, 1: 20 scale = 1 inch drawing on paper is equal to 20 inch real part.

EXAMPLE QUESTION 1

If a drawing is to scale and the scale of the drawing is 1:50 and the drawing length was 30 inches, what is the real length of the part?

 

drawing-scale-ex-1

The length of the real part is 1500 inches.

EXAMPLE QUESTION 2

If a drawing is to scale and the scale of the drawing is 2:1 and the drawing length was 30 inches, what is the real length of the part?

drawing-scale-ex-2

HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS

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Refer below for a summary of the 3 CLASS system for hazardous locations.  The classes are further broken down into Zones or Divisions.  The zone classification is a new system by which all new installations should comply with and the Division system is a legacy system for older installations that still exist.

hazardous-location-zone-divisions

To remember the 3 hazardous location classes, remember the acronym GDF which stands for Gas, Dust, Fibres/Flyings and correlates to CLASS 1, CLASS II and CLASS III.

 Section 18 of the CEC covers installations of electrical equipment in hazardous locations.  Refer to the hazardous location diagrams below.

 

class-i-haz-location

class-ii-haz-location

class-iii-haz-location

RIGGING, TUGGING, HOISTING AND LIFTING EQUIPMENT

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HAND SIGNALS WHEN MOVING LOADS

When moving loads a crane operator should always use a qualified signaler who communicates through appropriate hand signals.

  • There should be only one designated signaler at a time.
  • The crane operator should obey signals only from the designated signaler, unless it is a STOP signal which must be obeyed when given from anyone at anytime.
  • The signaler should wear a safety vest to identify them as the designated signaler.
  • As a signaler you should always be in clear view of the crane operator, have a clear view of the load, never direct a load over an individual and keep people outside the crane’s operating area.

Hand signals

(insert hand signals)

When using rigging, tugging, hoisting and lifting equipment, visually and mechanically inspect the equipment for worn, damaged or defective equipment.  If inadequate equipment is found report it to your supervisor, tag and decommission unsafe equipment.

TYPES OF SLINGS

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SYNTHETIC WEB SLINGS

Synthetic web slings are a good choice where highly finished parts or delicate equipment must be protected from damage. The synthetic material has some stretch and flexibility to help the slings contour to the shape of the load, gripping securely, while cushioning and absorbing shock.   

A synthetic fibre web sling must be identified permanently with the following;

  1. Working load limits (WLL)
  2. Type of synthetic web material
  3. Manufacturers stock or code number
  4. Manufacturer’s name

WIRE ROPE SLINGS

Always follow the manufacturer’s charts and tables on sling types, angles, and wire rope diameters and select the proper sling that best suits the load and slinging method that you are going to use on the job.

Before use, inspect slings for wear, fatigue, crushed or broken wires, kinking, heat damage, etc. If inadequate equipment is found report, tag and decommission unsafe equipment

When using wire rope slings protect slings by using corner saddles, wood blocks or padding.

IDENTIFICATION

A wire rope sling should be permanently identified with the following;

  • Working load limit.
  • The angle upon which the WLL is based.
  • The name or mark of the sling manufacturer.

SLING ANGLES

sling-angles

When the sling angle decreases the stress on the slings increases.  With a sling angle of 90° each sling carries half of the load but with a sling angle of 30° each sling is subject to 1000Lb stress, refer to the diagram above.

 

POWER ACTUATED TOOLS (HILTI GUNS)

A power actuated tool (often called a Hilti gun) Is a type of explosive fastening tool used to drive a fastener and join materials to steel and concrete.  

Never use a power actuated tool on marble, ceramic, drywall and concrete block, as operation on these materials may cause them to explode or the fastener to travel through the material (ex.drywall) to the other side possibly injuring someone.

  • Only trained, competent and authorized persons should use power actuated tools.
  • Wear appropriate PPE (Safety glasses/shield, hard hat, safety footwear and hearing protection).
  • Do not leave loaded power-actuated tools unattended.
  • Load power-actuated tools just before use. Do not carry a loaded PAT.
  • Do not use the tool where flammable or explosive vapours, dust or similar substances are present (hazardous locations).
  • Store tools and cartridges in a locked container when they are not in use. Ensure that the tool is unloaded before storing it.

 

ELECTRICAL TEST EQUIPMENT

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Before using electrical test equipment ensure it bears the CSA label and the appropriate electrical category rating (CAT I, II, III, IV).  CAT 1 through IV apply to 1000 V or less.  

Test leads should be certified to a category and voltage as high or higher than the meter you are using and also bear the appropriate CSA label (or equivalent).  

RADIATION INSTRUMENT

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A geiger counter is an radiation measuring instrument that is used to measure ionizing radiation.  It is used widely in the nuclear industry in applications such as radiation dosimetry and radiological protection.